The present research aims to know how much impact the physical fitness program may have on the level of musculoskeletal fitness of blind male students (15-18 years old). The experimental method was used on a sample of 18 students with visual impairment or blindness at the Visually Impaired Center. These students were chosen randomly, we used various tests, namely the push-ups, sit ups tests and sit and reach test, and the results obtained indicated that there are statistically significant differences between the pretests and posttests, in favor of the posttests, for the level of musculoskeletal fitness of students with visual impairment or blindness.


Musculoskeletal fitness -push-ups -sit ups –flexibility –person with visual impairment or blindness


  1. A.P. Sharon & D.M. Marilu, FITNESSGRAM/ACTIVITYGRAM Reference Guide (4th Edition), Dallas TX : The Cooper institute (2013).
  2. U.B. Aslan, & A. Kitis, B.B. Calik, The effect of gender and level of vision on the physical activity level of children and adolescents with visual impairment, Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33 (2012) 1794-1804.
  3. C.C. Chen, & S.Y. Lin, The impact of rope jumping exercise on physical fitness of Visually impaired students, Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32 (2011) 25–29.
  4. D. Pascolini, & S.P. Mariotti, Global estimates of visual imapirment: 2010, British Journal of Ophthalmology, 96 (2012) 614-618.
  5. D.R. Shapiro & J.J. Martin, Multidimensional physical self-concept of athlets with disabilities, Adapted physical activity quarterly, 27 (2010) 294-307.
  6. H. Michael, R. Christopher, C. Ron, & B. Bruce, A comparison isokinetic muscle strenght and power in visually impaired and sighted individuals, Isokinetics and exercise science, 12(3) (2004) 179-183.
  7. J.P. Winnick & F.X. Short, (1998) The national fitness test for youth with disabilities. State University of New York, College at brockport.
  8. L.J. Lieberman, & E. McHugh, Health-related fitness of children who are visually impaired, Journal of visual impairment & blindness, 95 (2001) 272-287.
  9. M. Caroline, & A.H. Elizabeth, The impact of a school running program on health-related physical fitness and self-efficacy in youth with sensory impairments, PALAESTRA, 30(1) (2016) 13-17.
  10. M. Schimid, A. Nardone, A.M. De Nunzio, & M. Schieppati, Equilibrium during static and dynamic tasks in blind subjects : no evidence of cross-modal palasticity, Brain, 130(8) (2007) 2097-107.
  11. M.E. Stuart, L.J. Lieberman, & K. Tland, Parent-child beliefs about physical activity : An examination of families of children with visual impairments, Journal of visual imapairment & blindness, 100(4) (2006) 223-234.
  12. P. Giagazoglou, L.G. Amiridis, A. Zafeiridis, M. Thimara, Y. Kouvelioti, & E. Kellis, Static balance control and lower limb strenght in blind and sighted women, European Journal of Applied Physiology, 107(5) (2009) 571-9.
  13. P. Longmuir, & O. Bar-Or, Factors influencing the physical activity levels of youth with physical and sensory disabilities, Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 17 (2000) 40-53.
  14. P. Ponchillia, B. Strause, & S. Ponchillia, Athletes with visual impairment: Attributes and sport participation, Journal of visual impairment & blindness, 96(4) (2002) 267-272.
  15. R. Singh, & H.J. Singh, Anthropometric and physiological profiles of active blind Malysian males, Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 33 (1993) 378-382.
  16. S. Perkins, L. Columna, L. Lieberman, & J. Bayley, Parten’s perceptions of physical activity of their children with visual impairments, Journal of visual impairment & blindness, 107(2) (2013) 131-142.
  17. S. Skaggs, & C. Hopper, Individuals with visual in impairments, a review of psychomotor behavior, Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 13 (1996) 16-26.
  18. US Bureau of the Census World Population Profile, (1998) Washington: VS Dept of Commerce