Virtual reality (VR) is an often-used instrument in sports science research and practical training. However, VR studies with experienced athletes and sports specific tasks are rare. Furthermore, the transfer from interventions in VR into reality is even less investigated. It is possible to analyze benefits of VR using in-situ studies comparing human behavior in VR with reality. If no differences occur in the human behavior, then VR would be appropriate for interventions to improve athletes’ performance. Therefore, we let seven karate athletes respond each to ten attacks of a real attacker (reality) and a virtual attacker (VR using a Head Mounted Display) and compared the parameters “response quality” and “attack recognition” under both conditions. As attacks we chose Gyaku-Zuki (reverse punch, GZ) and Kizami-Zuki (attack with the front arm, KZ). ANOVAs and sign tests showed isolated cases of significant differences between both conditions: response quality in KZ, and attack recognition for 150ms in GZ, all p0.05). The remaining comparisons showed no significant differences (p>0.05). We conclude that further research is needed but the results of the present pilot study are promising to assume that VR is suitable for applications because similar performance outcome in reality and VR were obtained.
KeywordsVirtual Reality Vr Head Mounted Display Karate Kumite
- C. Craig, Understanding perception and action in sport: how can virtual reality technology help?, Sports Technology, 6 (2014) 161-169. DOI: 10.1080/19346182.2013.855224
- R. Gray, Transfer of training from virtual to real baseball batting, Frontiers in Psychology, 8 (2017) 1-10. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02183.
- K. Petri, P. Emmermacher, M. Danneberg, S. Masik, F. Eckardt, S. Weichelt, N. Bandow, & K. Witte, Training using virtual reality improves response behavior in karate kumite, Sports Engineering, 22 (2019a) DOI: 10.1007/s12283- 019-0299-0
- K. Petri, N. Bandow, & K. Witte, Using several types of virtual characters in sports - a literature survey, International Journal of Computer Science in Sport, 17 (2018), 1-48, DOI: 10.2478/ijcss-2018-0001
- B. Bideau, R. Kulpa, S. Ménardais, F. Multon, P. Delamarche, & B. Arnaldi, Real handball goalkeeper vs. virtual handball thrower, Presence, 12 (2003) 411–421.
- N. Vignais, B. Bideau, C. Craig, S. Brault, F. Multon, P. Delamarche, & R. Kulpa, Does the level of graphical detail of a virtual handball thrower influence goalkeeper’s motor response?, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 8 (2009) 501-508.
- J. Tirp, C. Steingrover, N. Wattie, J. Baker, and J. Schorer, Virtual realities as optimal learning environments in sport – A transfer study of virtual and real dart throwing, Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 57 (2015) 57– 69.
- A.W. De Vries, G. Faber, I. Jonkers, J.H. Van Dieen, & S.M.P. Verschueren, Virtual reality balance training for elderly: similar skiing games elicit different challenges in balance training, Gait & Posture, 59 (2018) 111-116. DOI: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.10.006
- P. Plummer, Gait and balance training using virtual reality is more effective for improving gait and balance ability after stroke than conventional training without virtual reality, Journal of Physiotherapy, 63 (2017) 114. DOI: 10.1016/j.jphys.2017.02.010
- F.D. Rose, E.A. Attree, B.M. Brooks, D.M. Parslow, P.R. Penn, & N. Ambihaipahan, Training in virtual environments: transfer to real world tasks and equivalence to real task training, Ergonomics, 43 (2000) 494-511.
- J.M. Anglin, T. Sugiyama, & S.-L. Liew, Visuomotor adaptation in head-mounted virtual reality versus conventional training, Scientific Reports, 7 (2017) 45469. DOI: 10.1038/srep4546
- K. Petri, C.-D. Ohl, M. Danneberg, P. Emmermacher, S. Masik, & K. Witte, Towards the usage of virtual reality for training in sports, Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research, 7 (2018b) 1-3. DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2018.07.001453
- J.A. Stone, B.W. Strafford, J.S. North, C. Toner, & K. Davids, Effectiveness and efficiency of virtual reality designs to enhance athlete development: an ecological dynamics perspective, Movement & Sport Sciences - Science & Motricité, 102 (2018) 51-60. DOI: 10.1051/sm/2018031
- K. Petri, S. Masik, M. Danneberg, P. Emmermacher, & K. Witte, Possibilities to use a virtual opponent for enhancements of reactions and perception of young karate athletes, International Journal of Computer Science in Sport, 18 (2) (Special Edition) (2019b) 1-14. DOI: 10.2478/ijcss-2019-0011
- R. Gray, (2019). Virtual environments and their role in developing perceptual-cognitive skills in sports, In A.M. Williams & R.C. Jackson (Eds.) Anticipation and Decision Making in Sport, 2019. DOI: 10.4324/9781315146270-19
- A.-M. Burns, R. Kulpa, A. Durny, B. Spanlang, M. Slater, & F. Multon, Using virtual humans and computer animations to learn complex motor skills: a case study in karate, BIO Web of Conferences, 1 (2011) 1-4. DOI: 10.1051/bioconf/20110100012
- J. Petit, & H. Ripoll, Scene perception and decision making in sport simulation: a masked priming investigation, International Journal of Sport Psychology, 39 (2008) 1-19.
- K. Petri, K. Witte, N. Bandow, P. Emmermacher, S. Masik, M. Danneberg, S. Salb, L. Zhang, & G. Brunnett, (2017), Development of an autonomous character in karate kumite, Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Computer Science in Sport (IACSS 2017), Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 663, pp. 124-135, Springer International Publishing. DOI: 10.1007/978-3- 319-67846-1_13
- K. Petri, M. Lichtenstein, N. Bandow, S. Campe, M. Wechselberger, D. Sprenger, F. Kaczmarek, P. Emmermacher, & K. Witte, Analysis of Anticipation by 3D motion capturing – a new method presented in karate kumite, Journal of Sports Sciences, 35 (2016) 130-135. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2016.1158851
- V.M. Zaciorskij, (1971). Theorie und Praxis der Körperkultur – Die körperlichen Eigenschaften des Sportlers [Theory and praxis of body culture – physical characteristics of athletes], Sportverlag Berlin.
- E. von Oehsen, (1984). Aufnahme und Verarbeitung bewegungsinitiierender Information für situations- und zeitgerechtes Verhalten - Angriff und Konter im Karate [Perception and Processing of movement initiating information for adequate reaction – attack and counterattack in karate], Dissertation [doctoral thesis], university Bremen, Germany] Bremen, Germany.
- K. Petri, N. Bandow, J. Binder, M. Droste, & K. Witte, (2018a), Antizipation im Karate-Kumite [Anticipation in karate kumite]. In I. Fichtner (Hrsg.), Technologien im Leistungssport 3: Schriftenreihe für Angewandte Trainingswissenschaft, 13, 74-88. Aachen: Meyer und Meyer. ISBN: 978-3-8403-7628-3.