The objective of this study was to investigate the resilience of youth high level volleyball players. Forty-eight volleyball national team players U16 from Greece and Romania participated to the study (18 females and 30 males). The Self Evaluation Resilience test was used for the study. The data were analyzed with SPSS 21.0 using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni adjustment test. Results showed statistically significant differences between the males and females national team volleyball players in variables ‘‘healthy lifestyle’’ and ‘‘self-efficacy’’. It was concluded that coaches and volleyball players should recognize that female’s volleyball players focused more in healthy life style and having less self-efficacy comparing to same aged male’s volleyball players.


Mental toughness, Resilience, High Level Volleyball, Volleyball National Teams,


  1. L. Crust, Mental toughness in sport: a review, International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 5(3) (2007) 270-290. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2007.9671836
  2. G. Jones, S. Hanton, D. Connaughton, What is this thing called mental toughness? An investigation of elite sport performers, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14 (2002) 205-218. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200290103509
  3. I. C. Belem, N. M. Caruzzo, J.R.A.D. Nascimento Junior, J.L.L. Vieira, L.F. Vieira, Impact of coping strategies on resilience of elite beach volleyball athletes, Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano, 16(4) (2014) 447-455. https://doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n4p447
  4. C.R.D. Wagstaff, M. Sarkar, C.L. Davidson, D. Fletcher, (2016) Resilience in sport: A critical review of psychological processes, sociocultural influences, and organizational dynamics, in C. R. D. Wagstaff (Ed.), The organizational psychology of sport: Key issues and practical applications (pp. 120-149). London, UK: Routledge.
  5. E.E. Werner, (2005) What Can We Learn about Resilience from Large-Scale Longitudinal Studies? in: Goldstein S., Brooks R.B. (eds), Handbook of Resilience in Children. Boston, MA: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-48572-9_7
  6. G.O. Higgins, (1994) Resilient Adults: Overcoming a Cruel past. Jossey-Bass, CA:San Francisco,.
  7. A.G. Bonanno, D.A. Mancini, Resilience in the face of potential trauma, Journal of the American Academy, 121, (2008) 369-375. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00347.x
  8. P.B.C. Morgan, D. Fletcher, M. Sarkar, Defining and characterizing team resilience in elite sport, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14(4) (2013) 549-559. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.01.004
  9. R.G. Cowden, Competitive performance correlates of mental toughness in tennis: a preliminary analysis, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 123(1) (2016) 341-360. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031512516659902
  10. A.S. Masten, (1999) Commentary: The promise and perils of resilience researches a guide to preventive interventions, in M. D. Glantz & J. L. Johnson (Eds.), Resilience and Development: Positive Life Adaptations (pp. 251-257). New York: Plenum Press.
  11. Seyedeh Asma Hosseinia, Mohammad Ali Besharat, Relation of resilience whit sport achievement and mental health in a sample of athletes, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5 (2010) 633–638. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.156
  12. R.L. White, A. Bennie, J. McKenna, Resilience in youth sport: A qualitative investigation of gymnastics coach and athlete perceptions, International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 10 (2015) 379-394. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-9541.10.2-3.379
  13. M. Sarkar, D. Fletcher, Psychological resilience in sport performers: a review of stressors and protective factors, Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(15) (2014) 1419-1434. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.901551
  14. S. Leontopoulou, (2008) A cross – cultural study of resilience in young people, in P. Roussi, E., Vassilaki, & K. Kaniasty, (Eds.). Stress and psychosocial resources: Coping with life changes, occupational demands, educational challenges, and threats to physical and emotional well-being (p. 31-44). Berlin: Logos Verlag
  15. S. Hanrahan, E. Cerin, Gender, Level of participation, and type of sport: Differences in achievement goal orientation and attributional style, Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12(4) (2009) 508-512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2008.01.005
  16. A. Nicholls, R. Polman, A. Levy, S. Backhouse, Mental toughness in sport: Achievement level, gender, age, experience, and sport type differences, Personality and individual differences, 47 (2009) 73-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.02.006
  17. L.J. Patterson, P. Kelleher, (2005) Resilient school leaders: Strategies for turning adversity into achievement. ASCD; Illustrated Edition.
  18. G. Anagnostou, A. Patsiaouras, S. Demetriou, D. Kokaridas, Goal orientation and participation motivation in tennis young players, Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 13(3) (2013) 464 – 470. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2013.03074