This review article summarized the literature regarding running gait. It describes characteristics of running gait and running gait cycle, explains running anatomy in relation to lower and upper body mechanism; contribution of muscles, and joint running gait cycle. The concept of running kinematics and kinetics has described motion characteristics such as position, velocity, acceleration, and force applied during the running cycle. Running gait analysis techniques has discussed such as motion analysis, force plate analysis, and electromyography.


Biomechanics, Running Analysis, Kinematics, Kinetics,


  1. R.N. Van Gent, D. Siem, M. Van Middelkoop, A.G. Van Os, S. M. A. Bierma-Zeinstra, B.W. Koes, Incidence and Determinants of Lower Extremity Running Injuries in Long Distance Runners: A Systematic Review, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41(8), (2007) 469-480.
  2. C.W. Chan, A. Rudins, Foot Biomechanics during Walking and Running, In Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 69(5) (1994) 448–461.
  3. B. Knechtle, P. Knechtle, I. Schulze, & G. Kohler, Upper Arm Circumference Is Associated with Race Performance In Ultra-Endurance Runners. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 42(4), (2008) 295-299.
  4. R. Dermack, Long-Distance Running: An Investigation into Its Impact on Human Health (2015). Access from https://Pitjournal.Unc.Edu/Article/Long-Distance-Running-Investigation-Its-Impact-Human-Health
  5. L. Vitez, P. Zupet, V. Zadnik, M. Drobnič, Running Injuries in the Participants of Ljubljana Marathon, Slovenian Journal of Public Health, 56(4), (2017) 196-202.
  6. K.R. Williams, Biomechanics of Running, Exercise and Sport Science Review, 13, (1985) 389-441.
  7. D. Knudson, Fundamentals of Biomechanics, Springer Science & Business Media (2007).
  8. M. Phillips, Introduction to Running Biomechanics, (2013), Retrieved from https://Runnersconnect.Net/Running-Biomechanics/ On 13 May 2021.
  9. R.B. Souza, An Evidence-Based Videotaped Running Biomechanics Analysis, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics, 27(1), (2016) 217-236.
  10. C.F. Bridgman, Biomechanical Evaluation of Distance Running During Training and Competition, Doctoral Dissertation, University Of Salford, (2015). Available on: http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/34545/
  11. S. Ounpuu, The Biomechanics of Running: A Kinematic and Kinetic Analysis, Instructional Course Lectures, 39, (1990) 305-318.
  12. S.A. Dugan, K.P. Bhat, Biomechanics and Analysis of Running Gait, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics, 16(3), (2005) 603-621.
  13. N. Hamilton, K. Luttgens, The Lower Extremity: The Knee, Ankle and Foot. Kinesiology, Scientific Basis of Human Motion, 10, (2002) 182-192.
  14. R.S. Adelaar, The Practical Biomechanics of Running, The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 14(6), (1986) 497-500.
  15. P.R. Cavanagh, The Biomechanics of Lower Extremity Action in Distance Running, Foot & Ankle, 7(4), (1987) 197-217.
  16. I.S. Moore, Is There an Economical Running Technique? A Review of Modifiable Biomechanical Factors Affecting Running Economy, Sports Medicine, 46(6), (2016) 793–807.
  17. B.T. Van Oeveren, C.J. de Ruiter, P.J. Beek, J.H. Van Dieën, The biomechanics of running and running styles: a synthesis, Sports Biomechanics, (2021) 1-39.
  18. T. Anderson, Biomechanics and Running Economy, Sports Medicine, 22(2), (1996) 76-89.
  19. P.U. Saunders, D.B. Pyne, R.D. Telford, J.A. Hawley, Factors Affecting Running Economy in Trained Distance Runners, Sports Medicine, 34(7), (2004) 465-485.
  20. P.R. Cavanagh, K.R. Williams, The Effect of Stride Length Variation on Oxygen Uptake during Distance Running, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 14(1), (1982) 30–35.
  21. I.S. Moore, A.M. Jones, S.J. Dixon, Mechanisms for Improved Running Economy in Beginner Runners, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 44(9), (2012) 1756–1763.
  22. G. Crowther, Tips on Maximizing Your Running Economy. Northwest Runner Magazine (2001), USA.
  23. T. Noakes, Lore of Running, Human Kinetics, (2003) 29-47.
  24. S.J. Shultz, P.A. Houglum, D.H. Perrin, Examination of musculoskeletal injuries, Human Kinetics, (2015) 55-60.
  25. Tekscan. The Gait Cycle: Phases, Parameters to Evaluate & Technology, (2019), Retrieved from https://Www.Tekscan.Com/Blog/Medical/Gait-Cycle-Phases-Parameters-Evaluate-Technology On 8 May 2021.
  26. R.M. Buschbacher, N.D. Prahlow, S.J. Dave, (Eds.), Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation: A Sport-Specific Approach, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (2008), uSA.
  27. R.A. Mann, J. Hagy, Biomechanics of walking, running, and sprinting, Am J Sports Med,8(5) (1980) 345-350.
  28. T.L. Nicola, D.J. Jewison, The Anatomy and Biomechanics of Running, Clinics in Sports Medicine, 31(2), (2012) 187-201.
  29. T.F. Novacheck, The Biomechanics of Running, Gait & Posture, 7(1), (1998) 77-95.
  30. R. Bartlett, Introduction to sports biomechanics: Analyzing human movement patterns, Routledge, (2007) 15-16.
  31. T. F. Novacheck, Walking, running, and sprinting: a three-dimensional analysis of kinematics and kinetics, Instructional course lectures, 44, (1995) 497-506.
  32. S.R. Hamner, S.L Delp, Muscle contributions to fore-aft and vertical body mass center accelerations over a range of running speeds, Journal of biomechanics, 46(4), (2013) 780-787.
  33. J. Kelly. How Leg Workouts For Runners Work (2020), Access From https://Adventure.Howstuffworks.Com/Outdoor-Activities/Running/Training/Leg-Workouts-For-Runners1.Htm, On 15 May 2021
  34. J.K. Loudon, M. Swift, S. Bell, The Clinical Orthopedic Assessment Guide, Human Kinetics, (2008), USA.
  35. J. Hay, The Biomechanics of Sports Techniques, (1978) 411–412, Prentice-Hall, USA.
  36. S.J. Preece, D. Mason, C. Bramah, The Coordinated Movement of the Spine and Pelvis during Running, Human Movement Science, 45, (2016) 110–118.
  37. F. Bosch, K. Klomp, Biomechanics and exercise physiology applied in practice, (2005), Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, USA.
  38. J.W. Bunn, Scientific Principles of Coaching, (1972) 95, Prentice Hall, USA.
  39. B.J. Hopper, The Mechanics of Arm Action in Running, Track Technique, 17, (1964) 520-522.
  40. R.L. Terjung, Exercise and Sports Science Review, American College of Sports Medicine Series,13 (1985) 389-431.
  41. B.C. Elliott, B.A. Blanksby, Optimal Stride Length Considerations for Male and Female Recreational Runners, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 13(1), (1979) 15-18.
  42. M. Lindsay, How Arm Swing Affects Your Running Efficiency, (2018) Access From https://Blog.Mapmyrun.Com/How-Arm-Swing-Affects-Your-Running-Efficiency/ On 15 May 2021.
  43. R.N. Hinrichs, Upper Extremity Function in Running, Phd Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, (1983).
  44. S. Langer, A Practical Manual of Clinical Electrodynography, Langer Foundation for Biomechanics and Sports Medicine Research, (1989).
  45. C. Frigo, M. Rabuffetti, D. C. Kerrigan, L. C. Deming, & A. Pedotti, Functionally Oriented and Clinically Feasible Quantitative Gait Analysis Method, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 36(2), (1998) 179-185.
  46. A. Muro-De-La-Herran, B. Garcia-Zapirain, A. Mendez-Zorrilla, Gait Analysis Methods: An Overview of Wearable And Non-Wearable Systems, Highlighting Clinical Applications, Sensors, 14(2), (2014) 3362-3394.
  47. A.Cappozzo, U. Della Croce, A. Leardini, & L. Chiari, Human Movement Analysis Using Stereophotogrammetry: Part 1: Theoretical Background. Gait & Posture, 21(2), (2005) 186-196.
  48. E. Van Der Kruk, & M. M. Reijne, Accuracy of Human Motion Capture Systems for Sport Applications; State-Of-The-Art Review, European Journal of Sport Science, 18(6), (2018) 806-819.
  49. E. Surer, A. Kose, Methods and Technologies for Gait Analysis, In Computer Analysis of Human Behavior, Springer, London, (2011) 105-123.
  50. J. Deutscher, A. Blake, I. Reid, Articulated Body Motion Capture by Annealed Particle Filtering, In Proceedings IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. CVPR 2000 (Cat. No. PR00662) (2), (2000) 126-133.
  51. S. Corazza, L. Muendermann, A.M. Chaudhari, T. Demattio, C. Cobelli, T.P Andriacchi, A Markerless Motion Capture System to Study Musculoskeletal Biomechanics: Visual Hull and Simulated Annealing Approach, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 34(6), (2006) 1019-1029.
  52. T.J. Cham, J.M. Rehg, A Multiple Hypothesis Approach to Figure Tracking. In Proceedings. 1999 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (Cat. No PR00149) (2), (1999) 239-244.
  53. D.G.E. Robertson, G.E. Caldwell, J. Hamill, G. Kamen, S. Whittlesey, Research methods in biomechanics, Human kinetics, (2013).
  54. G.L. Soderberg, T.M. Cook, Electromyography in Biomechanics, Physical Therapy, 64(12) (1984) 1813-1820.
  55. J.P. Clarys, J. Cabri, (1993). Electromyography and the Study of Sports Movements: A Review, Journal of Sports Sciences, 11(5), 379-448.
  56. G.W. Hermann, An Electromyographic Study of Selected Muscles Involved in the Shot Put, Research Quarterly, American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 33(1), (1962) 85-93.
  57. R. Subbu, R. Weiler, G. Whyte, The practical use of surface electromyography during running: does the evidence support the hype? A narrative review, BMJ open sport & exercise medicine, 1(1), (2015) e000026.
  58. A. Sant’Anna, N. Wickström, H. Eklund, R. Zügner, & R. Tranberg, Assessment of gait symmetry and gait normality using inertial sensors: in-lab and in-situ evaluation, In International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, (2012) 239-254.
  59. M.J. Mathie, B.G. Celler, N.H. Lovell, A.C.F. Coster, Classification of basic daily movements using a triaxial accelerometer, Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 42, (2004) 679–687.
  60. A. Tay, S.C. Yen, J.Z. Li, W.W. Lee, K. Yogaprakash, C. Chung, S. Liew, B. David, W.L. Au, Real-Time Gait Monitoring For Parkinson Disease, In Proceedings of 2013 10th IEEE International Conference on Control and Automation (ICCA), Hangzhou, China, (2013) 1796–1801.
  61. T.Y. Shiang, T.Y. Hsieh, Y.S. Lee, C.C. Wu, M.C. Yu, C.H. Mei, I.H. Tai, Determine the foot strike pattern using inertial sensors, Journal of Sensors, (2016).
  62. Y. Shih, K.L. Lin, T.Y. Shiang, Is the foot striking pattern more important than barefoot or shod conditions in running? Gait & posture, 38(3), (2013) 490-494.
  63. A. Salarian, H. Russmann, F.J.G. Vingerhoets, C. Dehollaini, Y. Blanc, P.R. Burkhard, K. Aminian, Gait Assessment in Parkinson’s disease: Toward an Ambulatory System for Long-Term Monitoring, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 51, (2004) 1434–1443.