Filipinos had enjoyed playing indigenous games long before any other games. Little is known about traditional games and their perspectives among educational stakeholders who support their preservation in the educational system for emerging countries like the Philippines. This study aimed to explore the viewpoints of educational stakeholders regarding integrating indigenous games into the curriculum. A scoping design was used to review pertinent journal articles. Thus 14 were considered after screening and filtering the searched records in three databases. It was found that stakeholders have both positive and negative perspectives on the said implementation. They perceived that implementing indigenous Filipino games a) promotes cultural heritage, b) facilitates convenient learning, and c) strengthens the foundation values, health, and socialization. However, there are some setbacks, like a) limitations in using traditional games in the classroom and b) the endangerment of indigenous Filipino games due to the fast growth of e-games. Therefore, a call to action among curriculum implementers to revisit what areas need to be strengthened in implementing indigenous games despite the continuous advancements of technology that paved the emergence of modern games and even the prioritization of sports games. Although support from the community is needed, and more mandates from the local government to promote these games in playing, especially outside school.


Philippine indigenous games, Perspectives, Curriculum stakeholders, Scoping review,


  1. Agustin, M.L.P. (2020). Proposed unification of indigenous games in teaching physical education in Cagayan national high school, the Philippines. Middle Eastern Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, 1(1), 27–34.
  2. Akbari, H., Abdoli, B., Shafizadehkenari, M., Khalaji, H., Hajihosseini, S., & Ziaee, V. (2009). The effect of traditional games in fundamental motor skill development in 7-9 year old boys. Iranian Journal of Pediatrics, 19(2), 123-129.
  3. Almario, V.S. (2005). Locating the Filipino popular imagination in the age of globalization. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(5), 7316–7319.
  4. Arksey, H., & O’Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8(1), 19–32.
  5. Arroyo, D.M. (2013). House bill no. 2675: An act to include traditional games and sports in the physical education (PE.) courses in all levels of educational institutions and sport activities of local government units, appropriating funds therefor, and for other purposes. 16th Congress of the Philippines. https://issuances-library.senate.gov.ph/bills/house-bill-no-2675-16th-congress-republic
  6. Asrizal, A., Amran, A., Ananda, A., Festiyed, F., & Sumarmin, R. (2018). The development of integrated science instructional materials to improve students’ digital literacy in scientific approach. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 7(4), 442–450.
  7. Avila, R.V. (2021). Local wisdom in laro ng lahi as foundation in game-based pedagogy. Jurnal Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini, 12(2),107-124.
  8. Barlizo, R.J.E., & Osorno, R.M. (2022). The influence on physical education state anxiety and leisure motivation on perceived well-being of students. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science, 9(2), 149 – 175.
  9. Basal, H.A. (2017). In Turkey today, traditional children's games from the past (2nd ed.). Nobel Publishing, New York.
  10. Benzian, H., Monse, B., Belizario. V. Jr., Schratz, A., Sahin, M., & Helderman, W. (2012) Public health in action: Effective school health needs renewed international attention. Global Health Action, 5(1).
  11. Booc, R.P., Rafaela, K.B., Torres, M.J., Bulawan, R.P., Jabonero, L.C. II., Cortuna, I.J.M., & Asuncion, J.E. (2019). The traditional Filipino games: Status check among generation Z. International Scientific Journal Theoretical and Applied Science, 10 (78), 150–152.
  12. Brumann, C. (2015). Cultural heritage. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2, 414–419
  13. Cagas, J.Y., Mallari, M.F.T., Torre, B.A., Kang, M.G.D.P., Palad, Y.Y., Guisihan, R.M., Aurellado, M.I., Sanchez-Pituk, C., Realin, J.G.P., Sabado, M.L.C., Ulanday, M.E.D., Baltasar, J.F., Maghanoy, M.L.A., Ramos, R.A.A., Santos, R.A.B., & Capio, C.M. (2022). Results from the Philippines' 2022 report card on physical activity for children and adolescents. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 20(4), 382–390.
  14. Cajetas-Saranza, R. (2020). Approaches to integrating multicultural concepts as input to multicultural teacher education program. The Normal Lights, 14(1), 25 – 55.
  15. Cerda, C.M. (2021). Towards a “Filipino” video game: Teaching Filipino culture and identity for video game development. Transactions of the Digital Games Research Association, 5(3), 43–64.
  16. Fricke, S. (2018). Semantic scholar. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 106(1), 145–147.
  17. Gies, T. (2018). The science direct accessibility journey: A case study. Learned Publishing, 31(1), 69–76.
  18. Haddaway, N.R., Collins, A.M., Coughlin, D., & Kirk, S. (2015). The role of google scholar in evidence reviews and its applicability to grey literature searching. PLoS One, 10(9), 1–17.
  19. Hortelano, R., Juan, J.P., & Tindowen, D.J. (2015). Indigeneous games of the Agtas of Peñablanca, Cagayan. Bannag: A Journal of Local Knowledge, 5(1), 1-5.
  20. Iasha, V., Al Ghozali, M.I., Supena, A., Wahyudiana, E., Setiawan, B., & Auliaty, Y. (2020). The traditional games effect on improving students working memory capacity in primary schools. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Learning Innovation and Quality Education, 126, 1–5.
  21. Kamid, K., Rohati, R., Hobri, H., Triani, E., Rohana, S., & Pratama, W.A. (2022). Process skill and student’s interest for mathematics learning: Playing a traditional games. International Journal of Instruction, 15(3), 967–988.
  22. Kenanoglu, D., & Duran, M. (2021). The effect of traditional games on the language development of pre-school children in pre-school education. Asian Journal of Education and Training, 7(1), 74–81.
  23. Kovacevic, T., & Opic, S. (2014). Contribution of traditional games to the quality of students’ relations and frequency of students’ socialization in primary education. Croatian Journal of Education, 16(1), 95–112.
  24. Mabborang, F.D., Suarez, A., Dacuycuy, M.C., Malapira, D.J., & Agag, R. (2022). Street games in Filipino society in selected rural towns of Ilocos Norte. Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences,18(1), 10-17.
  25. Moher, D., Shamseer, L., Clarke, M., Ghersi, D., Liberati, A., Petticrew, M., Shekelle, P., & Stewart, L.A. (2015). Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Systematic Review, 4(1), 1–9.
  26. Morales, M. P. E. (2016). Exploring indigenous game-based physics activities in pre-service physics teachers' conceptual change and transformation of epistemic beliefs. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics Science and Technology Education, 13(5), 1305 – 1409.
  27. Morales, M.P.E. (2015). Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude enhancement. Culture Studies of Science Education.10, 951–984.
  28. Moro, K.C., & Billote, W.J.S.M., (2023). Integrating Ivatan indigenous games to learning module in Physics: Its effect to student understanding, motivation, attitude, and scientific sublime. Science Education International, 34(1), 3–14.
  29. Mozar, J.R.D. (2020). Enhanced curriculum with the integration of indigenous game to physical education in the different state universities and colleges (SUCs) in CARAGA Region, Philippines. International Journal of Applied Science and Research, 3(2).
  30. Mutakinati, L., Anwari, I., & Yoshisuke, K. (2018). Analysis of students’ critical thinking skill of middle school through stem education project-based learning. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 7(1), 54–65.
  31. Nagahama, H. (2014). The development of values education under the integrated learning subject in the Philippines. Journal of Education and Learning, 8(2), 152–163.
  32. Orejuela, J.G., Tolin, M.R., & Soreta, M.O. (2022). Flipping the language classroom: Effects of gamifying instruction in the English language proficiency of Filipino ESL students. Rajasthali Journal, 2(1), 95-105.
  33. Page, M.J., McKenzie, J.E., Bossuyt, P.M., Boutron, I., Hoffmann, T.C., Mulrow, C. D., Shamseer, L., Tetzlaff, J.M., Akl, E.A., Brennan, S.E., Chou, R., Glanville, J., Grimshaw, J.M., Hróbjartsson, A., Lalu, M.M., Li, T., Loder, E. M., Mayo-Wilson, E., MacDonald, S., McGuinness, L.A., Stewart, L.A., Thomas, J., & Tricco, A.C., Welch V.A., Whiting P., Moher D., (2021). The PRISMA 2020 statement: An updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. The British Medical journal, 372.
  34. Pham, M.T., Rajić, A., Greig, J.D., Sargeant, J.M., Papadopoulos, A., & McEwen, S.A. (2014). A scoping review of scoping reviews: Advancing the approach and enhancing the consistency. Research Synthesis Methods, 5(4), 371–385.
  35. Prestoza, M.-J. R., Paludipan, C. P., & Abad, A. E. (2020). Perception of elementary school teachers on laro ng lahi in Quirino, Isabela. International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture, 6(3), 1–8.
  36. Ribas, J.P., Hernández-Moreno, J., Díaz-Díaz, R., Borges-Hernández, P.J., Ruiz-Omeñaca, J.V., & Jaqueira, A.R. (2023). How to understand sports and traditional games and how to apply it to physical education: On the “goal of game”. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 5, 1–9.
  37. Salam, M. (2016). Early Childhood Education an Introduction, National Council of Educational Research and Traning.
  38. Santos, J., & Antonio, R., Capulong, B.C., Santos, D.R., Magugat, E.M., Leabres, J.H., & Ortega, M.J. (2019). Using mobile gaming to promote students’ conceptual understanding of traditional Filipino games. SSRN Electronic Journal.
  39. Siregar, N. R. & Ilham, M. (2019). Traditional game as a way for healthy in Bajo’s children. KnE Life Sciences, 4(11), 19–25.
  40. Tondo, J.E., Silverio, A.D.P., Bawer, M.C., & Evangelista, L. (2015). Ethnobotany of Lubuagan: Household materials and Ornaments. Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(2), 104–107.
  41. Trajkovik, V., & Malinovski, T., Vasileva Stojanovska T., & Vasileva, M. (2018). Traditional games in elementary school: Relationships of student’s personality traits, motivation and experience with learning outcomes. PLoS ONE, 13(8), 1–15.
  42. Tricco, A. C., Lillie, E., Zarin, W., O’Brien, K., Colquhoun, H., Kastner, M., Levac, D., Ng, C., Sharpe, J. P., Wilson, K., Kenny, M., Warren, R., Wilson, C., Stelfox, H. T., & Straus, S. E. (2016). A scoping review on the conduct and reporting of scoping reviews. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 16(5), 1–10.
  43. Villar, M. B. (2010). Senate bill no. 1108: Traditional games and sports act of 2010. 15th Congress of the Philippines. https://legacy.senate.gov.ph/lisdata/86027156!.pdf