International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports The International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports (IJPEFS) is an international, print / online quarterly journal (ISSN.No: Print (2277-5447) and Online (2457-0753)) published in English. The aim of IJPEFS is to stimulate knowledge to professionals, researchers and academicians working in the fields of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports Sciences. International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports en-US International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports 2277-5447 Technology consideration in tennis umpiring: replacing the humans <p>New technologies step into sports refereeing, officiating, or umpiring. This technology can assist humans to avoid blunders or errors. However, in tennis, this technology now starts to replace humans, i.e. the line umpires. In this letter, we try to provide insight into potential problems, that this technology brings, but also we try to provide its benefits. We offer considerations from the umpire (human) view. It is not very clear and we consider it still in a grey zone, what are the next best steps, even though it seems that the new technology implementation is unavoidable. In this letter, we focus on tennis line umpires, because technology is replacing them now. Therefore, would like to encourage and call for more research on this currently hot topic.</p> Jan Carboch Copyright (c) 2021 Jan Carboch 2021-10-04 2021-10-04 1 3 10.34256/ijpefs2141 Comparing the strategies used to maintain the coach-athlete relationship in Japan and the United Kingdom <p>The present study explored the strategies used to maintain the quality of the coach-athlete relationship amongst rowers in Japan and the United Kingdom. A total of 93 athletes from Japan (N = 49) and UK (N = 44) completed the Coach Athlete Relationship Maintenance Questionnaire (CARM-Q) and the Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire (ASQ). The results of T-tests showed that (a) university rowers in the UK were significantly more satisfied with the coach-athlete relationship than those in Japan; (b) the athletes in Japan expressed higher scores on Preventative strategies than the ones in the UK; (c) the athletes in the UK expressed higher scores on all other CARM-Q subscales with the exception of Social Networks. The results of correlation analyses revealed positive associations between the use of maintenance strategies and athlete satisfaction. These findings evidence the importance of coaches using strategies to maintain the effectiveness of their relationship with athletes as well as the importance of researchers taking cultural factors into account.</p> Daniel Rhind Frank Owusu-Sekyere Daichi Ando Copyright (c) 2021 Daniel Rhind, Frank Owusu-Sekyere, Daichi Ando 2021-10-09 2021-10-09 4 12 10.34256/ijpefs2142 Hand Grip Strength in Students: Differences in the Gender Dimorphism <p>The hands are anatomically specialized for manipulative tasks with different physical objects, where they can cope with certain loads with different forces and intensity. During various physical and sports activities, the hands produce the appropriate muscular force for gripping, which manifests as the hand grip's force. For this reason, hand grip strength (HGS) is recognized as a limiting factor in all manipulative activities performed by the cranial part of the body. The current research included a sample of 22 subjects, 16 male Body Height (BH=180.28±4.65cm); Body Weight (BW=80.05±9.96kg), Body Mass Index (BMI=24.61±2.74kg/m²) and 6 female subjects Body Height (BH=167.42±11.11cm); Body Weight (BW=64.80±10.09kg); Body Mass Index (BMI=23.02±1.57kg/m²) on the third year of study at the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports. This study aimed to determine the maximum isometric muscle force of the handgrip and differences between the same gender of students. A t-test for small samples was applied for data processing, and the relevant statistical parameters were calculated. The obtained t-test results confirmed statistically significant differences between the so-called dominant and non-dominant hands in male subjects (t=4.158; p&lt;0.05) and female subjects (t=3.176; p&lt;0.05). The obtained results of this research will be used for analytical and diagnostic purposes with a wide range of activities in the population of physical education and sports students (assessment of physical ability, trends, and tendencies to monitor and change abilities, influence on the implementation of certain curricula of some subjects studied at the faculty, etc.).</p> Ratko Pavlović Mensur Vrcić Copyright (c) 2021 Ratko Pavlović, Mensur Vrcić 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 13 21 10.34256/ijpefs2143 The acute effect of different intensity aerobic and resistance training exercise on the body image in adult women <p>The purpose of the study was to evaluate the acute effect of different intensity aerobic (AE) and resistance training (RT) exercises on BI in adult women. Participants were 62 adult women (19.47 ± 2.53 yr., range 18 a 33 yr.), who were randomly assigned to three sessions of either: 1) Control group, 2) Low-intensity AE, 3) High-intensity AE, 4) Low-intensity RT, or 5) High-intensity RT. Before and immediately following each experimental intervention, BI, body weight, and arm and leg circumferences were measured. Three familiarization sessions were performed every 7 days before the AE and RT experimental interventions. Also, 5-RM tests were performed one week before the RT experimental interventions. Data were analyzed using mixed 3-way ANOVA, mixed 4-way ANOVA, and post-hoc analysis. An acute effect of RT on BI was observed, regardless of the exercise intensity, women felt more muscular immediately following the RT session. Regardless of the exercise intensity, 30-min of acute RT exercise changed BI perception, contrary to 30 min AE.</p> Carpio-Rivera E Moncada-Jiménez J Salazar-Roja W Araya-Vargas G Copyright (c) 2021 Carpio-Rivera E, Moncada-Jiménez J, Salazar-Roja W, Araya-Vargas G 2021-11-11 2021-11-11 22 31 10.34256/ijpefs2144 Changes in Exercise Habits of University Students During the Covid-19 Lockdown <p>The purpose of this investigation was to investigate how the exercise habits of college students changed during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. Data were collected via an online survey distributed through the University of Southern Maine student email distribution list. All current university students were invited to participate in the survey starting in February 2021 through March 2021. The study included a questionnaire designed to capture the exercise habits of university students three months before the lockdown of COVID-19 (January – March 2020) and their exercise habits after a lockdown in (February - April 2021). The survey questions were based on the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) physical activity guidelines to analyze the participant's exercise habits. The participants showed a decrease in the exercise along with an increase in weekly sitting time. Before COVID-19, 21.8% of participants were sitting &gt;35 hours per week. After the COVID-19 lockdown, 50.45% of participants were sitting &gt;35 hours per week. The results of this study could be used for further research to promote an increase in exercise at home. With the uncertainty of the pandemic, motivating people to stand and walk more could be the first step in breaking the increase in sitting habits and help to increase exercise habits. The COVID-19 pandemic has indeed imposed many restrictions on our daily routines, but it could also guide us to new approaches for prescribing exercise programs in the future.</p> Deborah Van Langen Alexander Generali Copyright (c) 2021 Deborah Van Langen, Alexander Generali 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 32 41 10.34256/ijpefs2145 Effects of a preparatory training protocol on the movement and body stability of handball players <p>Handball is a sport with a high risk of injury, The prevalence of injury is only obtainable through a thorough and comprehensive analysis. One of the most commonly used test batteries for interpreting the characteristics of an injury is the Functional Movement Screen (FMS<sup>TM</sup>). It makes possible to possible to identify movement limitations and asymmetries which are believed to impact injury risk in sports. The aim of this study is to use the FMS<sup>TM</sup> to determine whether an eight-week training protocol can predict and prevent injuries in handball. The study sample comprised the fifteen members of the Borac handball club youth team. The initial measurement showed that most players (80%) had an overall score in the test battery ranging from 15 to 20 points. In addition, three players were found to have asymmetry. Only one of the three players had an overall score in the FMS<sup>TM</sup> of ≤14. The participants scored the lowest in the initial measurement for Rotary Stability, followed by Deep Squat and Hurdle Step Left. They scored the highest in the Shoulder Mobility. After the implementation of the exercise protocol for improving body mobility and stability, the final measurements showed that all the participants had an overall score in the FMS<sup>TM</sup> of &gt;14. The value of eta squared showed that training in between the two measurements had a significant impact. At the time of testing and protocol implementation no players sustained any injuries during matches or in training. This study confirmed that the FMS<sup>TM</sup> can be used to predict injuries in sports.</p> Rađević N Simović S Ponorac N Drljačić D Copyright (c) 2021 Rađević N, Simović S, Ponorac N, Drljačić D 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 42 56 10.34256/ijpefs2146 Gender Differences Concerning Physical Activity Beliefs and Practices among Fourth and Fifth Graders in Rural Virginia <p>Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Physical activity (PA) is a known preventative factor. It is recommended that children participate in 60 minutes of PA daily, but most do not meet these guidelines. Further, boys, aged 8-17 years, spend more time in PA than girls of the same age. The purposes of this study were to identify gender differences in PA beliefs and practices among fourth and fifth graders and to determine when gender disparities in self-confidence regarding PA and fitness occur.&nbsp; Subjects were 41 fourth (19 boys; 22 girls) and 33 fifth (16 boys; 17 girls) graders in a public elementary school in the rural northwest. They participated in the FitnessGram, a nationwide assessment of flexibility, aerobic capacity, and muscular strength and endurance, and a proctored survey about their PA beliefs, self-confidence, and participation. There were no differences in FitnessGram data between boys and girls for aerobic capacity or muscular strength and endurance, but girls had increased flexibility when compared to boys in both grades. Importantly, survey results showed fifth grade girls had less confidence they could improve their physical fitness (p = 0.002) or their overall health (p = 0.004) when compared to fourth grade girls. Research is needed to determine how these changes in self-confidence contribute to the gender gap in time spent in PA. We recommend physical education programs throughout all grades teach healthy behaviors, including time spent in PA, and work to build and maintain self-confidence in girls.</p> Tenesha M. McDuffie Mikaela A. Brooks Emily DeVilliers Ashley N. Kelleran Anna K. Leal Copyright (c) 2021 Tenesha M. McDuffie, Mikaela A. Brooks, Emily DeVilliers, Ashley N. Kelleran, Anna K. Leal 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 57 68 10.34256/ijpefs2147