International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports The International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports (IJPEFS) is an international, print / online quarterly journal (ISSN.No: Print (2277-5447) and Online (2457-0753)) published in English. The aim of IJPEFS is to stimulate knowledge to professionals, researchers and academicians working in the fields of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports Sciences. en-US (Shashi Bala Singh, Ph.D., DSc., FNASc., FIAN, FAMS) (Er. R. Vignesh, Journal Manager) Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 The Perceived Sustainability of Sports and Social Legacy Goals of Beijing Summer and Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games <p>Inspired by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Legacy Strategic Approach, Beijing 2022 issued the Legacy Plan of the Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games as a continuing effort from the 2008 Beijing Olympics “to promote a positive legacy from the Olympic Games to the host cities, regions and countries” (IOC, 2020). Using a qualitative approach guided by Asper’s (2009) empirical phenomenology and Alase’s (2017) interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), the author interviewed the Olympic officials in legacy planning for the 2008 Summer Games and/or the 2022 Winter Games, the scholars in Olympic studies, and a journalist reporting the Olympic legacy related news in Beijing. The narratives presented the interviewees’ positive experiences and perceptions in most of the sustainability inquiries of the “soft” legacy goals. The results revealed that the Olympic and Paralympic ideals had been well appreciated by the mass public since Beijing hosted the 2008 Summer Games and the sports and social legacies from the Games had been carried forward to Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics and Paralympics. At the same time, a gap existed between urban and rural, especially on the sustainability of the legacy goals concerning people with disabilities.</p> Charlie Song Copyright (c) 2022 Charlie Song Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Acute Effect of Resistance Training on Cognitive Function of Costa Rican Older Adults <p>Different types of exercise interventions have shown to improve cognitive performance; however, there is scarce evidence on the acute effect of resistance training (RT) on cognitions in older adults. The purpose of this study is to determine the acute effect of RT on cognitive performance in healthy older adults. 45 adults (Mean age = 65.3 ± 3.7 yr.) were randomly allocated to one of three groups: high-intensity RT (G1), low-intensity RT (G2), or inactive control (G3). Participants completed cognitive tests assessing processing speed, visuospatial processing, executive function, and cognitive control, working memory and immediate memory. The RT protocol for G1 and G2 consisted of six exercises. A 3x2 ANCOVA was performed with education as a covariate. Significant improvements were found on visuospatial processing in G1 (Pre = 61.6 ± 2.1 vs. Post = 69.7 ± 2.4; 95%CI = 4.8, 11.4; p ≤ 0.001) and G2 (Pre = 62.4 ± 2.2 vs. Post = 67.0 ± 2.5; 95%CI = 1.2, 8.1; p = 0.009). Other tested cognitive abilities were unchanged by acute exercise or rest. Acute RT enhanced or maintained cognitive performance in older adults. It was possible to successfully perform 1RM tests with older adults. Additional evidence is needed to determine effective protocols to improve cognition in older adulthood.</p> Hernández-Gambo R, Moncada-Jiménez J Copyright (c) 2022 Hernández-Gambo R, Moncada-Jiménez J Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Differences in Temporal Gait Parameters When Walking on Even Surface Walkway, Treadmill, and Pushing a Constant Resistant Sled <p>Motorized treadmills and weighted sleds are employed in clinical settings to improve lower extremity strength, power, and endurance. However, little is known about how the spatio-temporal parameters compare when walking on an even surface walkway, walking on a treadmill, or pushing a sled. This study aimed to examine the variations in spatial and temporal gait parameters when walking on an even surface walkway (EW), on a treadmill (TW), and while pushing a sled (SP). Forty healthy subjects participated in this pilot study. The mean age and BMI of all participants were 24.39 (± 2.86) years and 68.26 (± 13.92) kg/m^2, respectively. Spatio-temporal parameters were gathered using the Mobility Lab ADPM software and six sensors containing accelerometers and gyroscopes. Participants were directed to walk at a normal and comfortable speed for 7 m on an even surface walkway for two trials. Next, the subjects walked on the treadmill for two trials at a speed based on age. For males aged &lt;30 and females 20-40 years of age, the speed was 1.3 m/s. While for males aged 30 or older, the speed was set to 1.4 m/s. Finally, participants were instructed to walk at their normal pace while pushing a 60 lb sled for 9.1 meters (m). Treadmill walking provoked a significant increase in temporal variables, whereas pushing a sled significantly reduced the temporal variables. Treadmill walking resulted in a decrease in double limb support time and an increase in single-limb support time compared with even surface walking. Although cadence was greater when walking on a treadmill versus an even surface walkway, the difference may be attributed to a fixed speed on the treadmill, which was determined by age. Treadmill gait training is recommended for subjects that could benefit from an increase single limb support time to improve dynamic balance such as Parkinson patients. On the other hand, for those participants that dynamic activities are challenging, such as concussion and vestibular patients, pushing the sled will slow down gait parameters allowing gait training with an added resistance benefit. Finally, it has been proposed that further investigation should focus on the differences in lower extremity muscle activation and recruitment patterns under various walking conditions.</p> Martin G. Rosario, Elizabeth Orozco Copyright (c) 2022 Martin G. Rosario, Dr. Orozco Tue, 03 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of a Respiratory Resistance Mask on Forced Expiratory Volume at 1s (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and the Ratio of FEV1/FVC Lung Function following High Intensity Training (HIT) <p>Training masks (TMs), marketed as simulated altitude training devices, suggest increased workout capacity, intensity tolerance and recovery. The claim is that the training mask improves respiratory power and breathing mechanics by strengthening the respiratory muscles through breathing resistance provided by the TM. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a commercially manufactured TM in conjunction with bicycle ergometry, high intensity training (HIT) on selected lung function parameters. Volunteers (N=16) participated in this study and were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. The experimental group wore the TM with progressive increased respiratory resistance and the control group wore the TM with no respiratory resistance. To determine lung function, pre- and post-test assessments consisted of forced expiratory volume at 1s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), the ratio of FEV1/FVC. Additionally, to determine the TMs effectiveness of maximal oxygen consumption pre- and post-time to failure during a maximum treadmill test was performed. Training was completed on a cycle ergometer on 3d/wk for 4 wks. Participants exercised at 85% of HRmax with a pedal rate of 100-120 rpm at individually set resistance levels. Training sessions consisted of 10 bouts of 30s exercise followed by 30s of active recovery for a total time of 10 minutes. The respiratory resistance for the experimental group progressively increased over the training period. Repeated measures ANOVAs yielded significant between group difference in FVC (p = 0.02) but not for FEV1 or maximum treadmill time. In conclusion, TMs in combination with HIT failed to improve lung function but created sufficient resistance to strengthen the muscles in respiratory ventilation.</p> Brandie C. Cheshier, Bert H. Jacobson, Carlos A. Estrada, Masoud Moghaddam, Carter J. Stewart Copyright (c) 2022 Brandie C. Cheshier, Bert H. Jacobson, Carlos A. Estrada, Masoud Moghaddam, Carter J. Stewart Wed, 04 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Reference Interval of Muscle Damage Indices and Cortisol in Young Athletes of Various Sports Discipline <p>Creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cortisol are widely accepted as biological markers. The purpose of the study was to frame the reference interval for muscle damage indices (CK, LDH) and cortisol in the young athletic population of various sports disciplines. 260 young male players [i.e., football (n=62), hockey (n=60), gymnastics (n=36), swimming (n=28), table tennis (n=25), sprint-jump-throw (n=36) and middle-long distance running (n=13)] were recruited for the study (mean age = 15.6±1.59 yrs). Assay of LDH, CK and cortisol was done using the standard enzymatic protocol. The reference interval was calculated by following the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) C28-A3 guideline and “MedCalc” software (version 19) with a 90% confidence interval. Serum LDH range was from 148.00-324.00 IU/L with a mean of 233.2±34.74 and a median around 236.25. Serum CK ranged from 17.00-43.50 IU/L with a mean of 28.93±5.23 IU/L and a median around 28.00. Cortisol ranged from 4.99-15.78 µg/dl with a mean of 9.31±2.09 µg/dl and a median around 8.90. The present study confers 165.63 - 303.43 IU/L, 19.00 – 40.09 IU/L and 6.07-14.15 µg/dl as the reference interval values for LDH, CK and cortisol, respectively. The present finding will guide the researchers to avoid misinterpretation of muscle damage indices values during any phase of competitive training of sports person.</p> Surojit Sarkar, Swapan Kumar Dey, Gouriprosad Datta, Amit Bandyopadhyay Copyright (c) 2022 Surojit Sarkar, Swapan Kumar Dey, Gouriprosad Datta, Amit Bandyopadhyay Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000