Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the intensity of coping strategies used by students of Physical Education during a pandemic. Women and men were compared in terms of strategies considered positive and negative. The study used the psychological tool: Inventory for the Measurement of Coping with Stress. The participants were students of Physical Education (aged 25.69 ± 5.908); 26 women, 28 men. Results: the examined women show a higher intensity of both positive and negative coping strategies. The most common strategy among students is positive re-evaluation. Conclusions: The surveyed students experiencing difficult situations choose rather positive than negative strategies of coping with the problem. Women showing a higher level of coping strategies may be more aware of a difficult situation or experience a pandemic more intensely in relation to men.

Keywords

Cessationsport activity Coronavirus Men Women

References

  1. Arble, E., Daugherty, A., & Arnetz, B. (2018). Models offirst responder coping: police officers as a uniquepopulation. Stress Health, 34(5). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/https:/doi.org/10.1002/smi.2821
  2. Berman, S. L., Kurtines, W. M., Silverman, W. K., & Serafini, L. T. (1996). The impact of exposure to crime and violence on urban youth. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66(3). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1037/h0080183
  3. Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(2). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.56.2.267
  4. Cañadas-De la Fuente, G., Ortega, E., Ramirez-Baena, L., De la Fuente-Solana, E., Vargas, C., & Gómez-Urquiza, J. (2018). Gender, Marital Status, and Children as Risk Factors for Burnout in Nurses: A Meta-Analytic Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(10). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102102
  5. Custodio, P., & Siy, L. (2017). Needs, difficulties andcoping mechanisms of women as professionalsand as managers of households. Asia PacificJournal of Multidisciplinary Research, 5(2).
  6. Doering, L. V., Dracup, K., Caldwell, M. A., Moser, D. K., Erickson, V. S., Fonarow, G., & Hamilton, M. (2004). Is coping style linked to emotional states in heart failure patients?. Journal of Cardiac Failure, 10(4). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2003.10.001
  7. Dyson, R., & Renk, K. (2006). Freshmen adaptation to university life: Depressive symptoms, stress, and coping. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(10). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20295
  8. ENUMO, S. R. F., WEIDE, J. N., VICENTINI, E. C. C., ARAUJO, M. F. de, & MACHADO, W. de L. (2020). Enfrentando o estresse em tempos de pandemia: proposição de uma Cartilha. Estudos De Psicologia (Campinas), 37. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0275202037e200065
  9. Extremera, N. (2020). Coping with the stress caused by the COVID-19 pandemic: future research agenda based on emotional intelligence ((Afrontando el estrés causado por la pandemia COVID-19: futura agenda de investigación desde la inteligencia emocional)). International Journal of Social Psychology, 35(3). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/02134748.2020.1783857
  10. Fitzell, A., & Pakenham, K. I. (2010). Application of a stress and coping model to positive and negative adjustment outcomes in colorectal cancer caregiving. Psycho-Oncology, 19(11). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.1666
  11. Hamaideh, S. H. (2011). Occupational Stress, Social Support, and Quality of Life among Jordanian Mental Health Nurses. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 33(1). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3109/01612840.2011.605211
  12. Holahan, C. J., & Moos, R. H. (1986). Personality, coping, and family resources in stress resistance: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(2). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.2.389
  13. Juczyński, Z., & Ogińska-Bulik, N. (2009). NPSR -Narzędzia Pomiaru Stresu i Radzenia Sobie zeStresem[Stress Measurement and StressManagement Tools. PTP.
  14. Jungmann, S. M., & Witthöft, M. (2020). Health anxiety, cyberchondria, and coping in the current COVID-19 pandemic: Which factors are related to coronavirus anxiety?. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 73. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102239
  15. Kalateh Sadati, A., Hemmati, S., Rahnavard, F., Bagheri Lankarani, K., & Heydari, S. T. (2016). The Impact of Demographic Features and Environmental Conditions on Rates of Nursing Burnout. Shiraz E-Medical Journal, 17(3). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.17795/semj37882
  16. Kutluturkan, S., Sozeri, E., Uysal, N., & Bay, F. (2016). Resilience and burnout status among nursesworking in oncology. Annals of GeneralPsychiatry, 15. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1186/s12991%E2%80%90016%E2%80%900121%E2%80%903
  17. Lazarus, R., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress,appraisal and coping. Springer.
  18. Liddon, L., Kingerlee, R., & Barry, J. (2017). Genderdifferences in preferences for psychologicaltreatment, coping strategies, and triggers tohelp‐seeking. British Journal of ClinicalPsychology, 57(1).
  19. Mahmoud, J. S. R., Staten, R. “Topsy”, Hall, L. A., & Lennie, T. A. (2012). The Relationship among Young Adult College Students’ Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Demographics, Life Satisfaction, and Coping Styles. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 33(3). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3109/01612840.2011.632708
  20. Mark, G., & Smith, A. P. (2011). Occupational stress, job characteristics, coping, and the mental health of nurses. British Journal of Health Psychology, 17(3). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8287.2011.02051.x
  21. Mark, G., & Smith, A. P. (2012). Effects of occupational stress, job characteristics, coping, and attributional style on the mental health and job satisfaction of university employees. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 25(1). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2010.548088
  22. Master, A., Su, X., Zhang, S., Guan, W., & Li, J. (2020). Psychological impact of COVID‐19 outbreak onfrontline nurses: A cross‐sectional survey study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29(21/22).
  23. Menéndez-Espina, S., Llosa, J. A., Agulló-Tomás, E., Rodríguez-Suárez, J., Sáiz-Villar, R., & Lahseras-Díez, H. F. (2019). Job Insecurity and Mental Health: The Moderating Role of Coping Strategies From a Gender Perspective. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00286
  24. Mocny-Pachońska, K., Trzcionka, A., Doniec, R., Sieciński, S., & Tanasiewicz, M. The Influence ofGender and Year of Study on Stress Levels andCoping Strategies among Polish Dental. Medicina, 56(2020).
  25. Nowack, K. M. (1989). Coping style, cognitive hardiness, and health status. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 12(2). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00846548
  26. Rojiani, R., Santoyo, J. F., Rahrig, H., Roth, H. D., & Britton, W. B. (2017). Women Benefit More Than Men in Response to College-based Meditation Training. Frontiers in Psychology, 8. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00551
  27. Ryu, G. W., Yang, Y. S., & Choi, M. (2020). Mediating role of coping style on the relationship between job stress and subjective well-being among Korean police officers. BMC Public Health, 20(1). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08546-3
  28. Sawyer, M. G., Pfeiffer, S., & Spence, S. H. (2009). Life events, coping and depressive symptoms among young adolescents. Journal of Affective Disorders, 117(1-2). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2008.12.013
  29. Sawyer, M. G., Pfeiffer, S., & Spence, S. H. (2009). Life events, coping and depressive symptoms among young adolescents. Journal of Affective Disorders, 117(1-2). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2008.12.013
  30. Sherwood L, L., Hegarty, S., Vallieres, F., Hyland, P., Murphy, J., Fitzgerald, G., & Reid, T. (2019). Identifying the key risk factors for adversepsychological outcomes among police officers asystematic literature review. Journal OfTraumatic Stress, 32(5). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/https:/doi.org/10.1002/jts.22431
  31. Talarowska, M., Chodkiewicz, J., Nawrocka, N., Miniszewska, J., & Biliński, P. (2020). Mental Health and the SARS-COV-2 Epidemic—Polish Research Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(19). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197015
  32. Tehrani, H., Rakhshani, T., Shojaee Zadeh, D., Hosseini, S. M., & Bagheriyan, S. (2013). Analyzing the Relationship Between Job Stress to Mental Health, Personality Type And Stressful Life Events of the Nurses Occupied in Tehran 115 Emergency. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 15(3). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.1917
  33. Vollrath, M., & Torgersen, S. (2000). Personality types and coping. Personality and Individual Differences, 29(2). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/s0191-8869(99)00199-3
  34. Wang, H., Xia, Q., Xiong, Z., Li, Z., Xiang, W., Yuan, Y., & Li, Z. (2020). The psychological distress andcoping styles in the early stages of the 2019coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic in thegeneral mainland Chinese population: A webbased survey. PloS One, 15(5). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233410.%20e0233410
  35. Xie, Y. Reliability and validity of the simplifiedcoping style questionnaire. Chinese Journal OfClinical Psychology, 6(1998).
  36. Yan, L., Gan, Y., Ding, X., Wu, J., & Duan, H. (2021). The relationship between perceived stress and emotional distress during the COVID-19 outbreak: Effects of boredom proneness and coping style. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 77. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102328
  37. Yu, Y., Peng, L., Liu, B., Liu, Y., Li, M., Chen, L., Xie, J., Li, J., & Li, J. (2016). The effects of anxiety and depression on stress-related growth among Chinese army recruits: Resilience and coping as mediators. Journal of Health Psychology, 21(9). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105314567769