We examined the energy costs of different resistance training protocols where exercise and recovery periods were equated: 48 total seconds of exercise and 210 seconds of between-set recovery. Two separate investigations were carried out at 65% of a 1 repetition maximum (1RM): back squat (7 men, 3 women) and bench press (9 men). Lifting cadence for concentric and eccentric phases was set at 1.5 sec each with 30 sec between-set recovery periods for the 8 sets, 2 reps protocol (sets) and a 3 min and 30 sec between-set recovery period for the 2 sets, 8 reps protocol (reps). The amount of oxygen consumed during lifting and between-set recovery periods was significantly greater for sets vs. reps protocol for both the back squat (+41%) and bench press (+27%) (p = 0.0001). Moreover, the total aerobic cost including the after-lifting excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was larger for the increased sets protocol for both the squat (+27%, p = 0.01) and bench press (+29%, p = 0.04). Total energy costs - aerobic plus anaerobic, exercise and recovery - were not different among sets or reps protocols. We conclude that a greater volume of oxygen is consumed with a lower repetition, increased number of sets resistance training protocol. We suggest that more recovery periods promote a greater potential for fat oxidation.
KeywordsMuscle metabolism Energy costs Intermittent exercise Fat oxidation
- S.H. Boutcher, High-intensity intermittent exercise and fat loss, Journal of Obesity, 2011 (2011) 868305.
- F. Maillard, B. Pereira, N. Boisseau, Effect of high-intensity interval training on total, abdominal and visceral fat mass: a meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 48 (2018) 269-288.
- C.B. Scott, Oxygen costs peak after resistance exercise sets: a rational for the importance of recovery over exercise, Journal of Exercise Physiology, 15 (2012) 1-8.
- W.D. McArdle, G.F. Foglia, Energy cost and cardiorespiratory stress of isometric and weight training exercises, Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 9 (1969) 23-30.
- G. Haff, N.T. Triplet, (2015). Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning (4th ed.). Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.
- C.B. Scott, The effect of time-under-tension and weight lifting cadence on aerobic, anaerobic, and recovery energy expenditures: 3 sets, Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 37 (2012) 252-256.
- C.B. Scott, A. Luchini, A. Knausenberger, A. Steitz, Total energy costs – aerobic and anaerobic, exercise and recovery – of five resistance exercises, Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine, 7 (2014) 53-59.
- J.M. McBride, G.O. McCauley, P. Cormie, J.L. Nuzzo, M.J. Cavill, N.T. Triplett, Comparison of methods to quantify volume during resistance exercise, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23 (2009) 106-110.
- E.M. Gorostiaga, I. Navarro-Amezqueta, R. Cusso, Y. Hellstern, J.A.L. Calbet, M. Guerrero, C. Granados, M. Gonzalez-Izal, J. Ibanez, M. Izquierdo, Anaerobic energy expenditure and mechanical efficiency during exhaustive leg press exercise, PLoS One 5(10) (2010) e13486.
- R.H.T. Edwards, D.K. Hill, M. McDonnell, Myothermal and intramuscular pressure measurements during isometric contractions of the human quadriceps muscle, Journal of Physiology, 224 (1972) 58P-59P.
- T. Tetsuro, S. Uchiyama, T. Tamura, S. Nakano, Changes in muscle oxygenation during weight-lifting exercise, European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 68 (1994) 465-469.
- C.B. Scott, (2018). How to Maximize the Caloric Costs of Exercise. Archway Publ. Bloomington, IN.
- G.R. Hunter, R.L. Weinsier, M.M. Bamman, D.E. Larson, A role for high intensity exercise on energy balance and weight control, Int J Obesity, 22 (1998) 489-493.