Abstract

This study aimed to determine the most and least important reasons for engaging in physical education classes among students in two educational pathways within the context of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Forty-one students participated in the study (25 males and 16 females; mean age = 16.37 ± 0.829). The sample was divided based on two class types: regular education and professional education. All students answered a questionnaire that aimed to verify the most and least important reasons for students to engage in physical education classes concerning intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.  Indicated that both regular education and professional education classes had intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The results also revealed that the participation of students was based essentially on their intrinsic motivation, but for different reasons when comparing the two educational pathways. Both types of the class were intrinsically and extrinsically motivated to participate in physical education classes.

Keywords

School Regular Education Professional Education Exercise Self-Determination

References

  1. R. Bailey, Physical education and sport in schools: A review of benefits and outcomes, Journal of School Health, 76 (2006) 397–401.
  2. B.W. Landry, S.W. Driscoll, Physical activity in children and adolescents, PM&R, 4 (2012) 826–832.
  3. I. Janssen, A.G. LeBlanc, Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth, International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7 (2010) 40.
  4. P.D. Loprinzi, B.J. Cardinal, K.L. Loprinzi, H. Lee, Benefits and environmental determinants of physical activity in children and adolescents, Obesity Facts, 5 (2012) 597–610.
  5. D. Dudley, A. Okely, P. Pearson, W. Cotton, A systematic review of the effectiveness of physical education and school sport interventions targeting physical activity, movement skills and enjoyment of physical activity, European Physical Education Review, 17 (2011) 353–378.
  6. W. Kay, Physical Education-Quality: A quality experience for all pupils, URL (Consulted 13 October 2006).
  7. D. Kirk, Physical education, youth sport and lifelong participation: the importance of early learning experiences, European Physical Education Review, 11 (2005) 239–255.
  8. R. Trigueros, L.A. Mínguez, J.J. González-Bernal, M. Jahouh, R. Soto-Camara, J.M. Aguilar-Parra, Influence of teaching style on physical education adolescents’ motivation and health-related lifestyle, Nutrients, 11 (2019) 2594.
  9. S. de Araújo, T. Mesquita, A. Araújo, A. de Bastos, Motivação nas aulas de educação física: um estudo comparativo entre gêneros, EFDeportes com, Revista Digital. Buenos Aires, Ano, 13 (2008).
  10. R.A. Kusurkar, T.J. Ten Cate, C.M.P. Vos, P. Westers, G. Croiset, How motivation affects academic performance: a structural equation modelling analysis, Advances in Health Sciences Education, 18 (2013) 57–69.
  11. A. Marques, F. Gómez, J. Martins, R. Catunda, H. Sarmento, Association between physical education, school-based physical activity, and academic performance: a systematic review, Retos, 31 (2017) 316–320.
  12. A.A. Lourenço, M.O.A. De Paiva, A motivação escolar e o processo de aprendizagem, Ciências & Cognição, 15 (2010).
  13. M.J. Balancho, F. Coelho, Motivar os alunos–criatividade na relação pedagógica: conceitos e práticas (3aEdição), Lisboa: Texto Editora, Lda, (2001).
  14. E.L. Deci, R.M. Ryan, Intrinsic motivation, The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, (2010) 1–2.
  15. R.M. Ryan, E.L. Deci, Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being, American Psychologist, 55 (2000) 68–78.
  16. X. Montserrat, Como motivar–Dinâmicas para o sucesso, Edições, Porto, (2006).
  17. Y.D.R. Santos, Motivar para praticar: fatores de motivação intrínseca e extrínseca dos alunos nas aulas de educação física, Educação Fisica Licenciatura-Tubarão, (2019) 1-15.
  18. D.R. Schwaab, Motivação intrínseca e extrínseca nas aulas de educação física, (2014).
  19. M.C. Kobal, Motivação intrínseca e extrínseca nas aulas de educação física, (1996).
  20. F.M.G. Oliveira, Estudo da força em alunos do 11o ano sujeitos a intervenção: relatório de estágio, University São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, 2019.
  21. M.R. Lepper, J.H. Corpus, S.S. Iyengar, Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the classroom: Age differences and academic correlates, Journal of Educational Psychology, 97 (2005) 184-196.
  22. N. Gillet, R.J. Vallerand, M.-A.K. Lafrenière, Intrinsic and extrinsic school motivation as a function of age: The mediating role of autonomy support, Social Psychology of Education, 15 (2012) 77–95.
  23. V. Scherrer, F. Preckel, Development of motivational variables and self-esteem during the school career: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies, Review of Educational Research, 89 (2019) 211–258.
  24. T. Gnambs, B. Hanfstingl, The decline of academic motivation during adolescence: An accelerated longitudinal cohort analysis on the effect of psychological need satisfaction, Educational Psychology, 36 (2016) 1691–1705.
  25. F.A. Teixeira, A.F. Moletta, Motivação nas aulas de Educação Física, Anais Do X Encontro Nacional de Educação–EDUCERE. Pontifícia Universidade Católica Do Paraná-PUC, Curitiba, (2011).
  26. S.C. Darido, A educação física na escola e o processo de formação dos não praticantes de atividade física, Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte, 18 (2004) 61–80.
  27. A. Pires, L. Cid, C. Chicau Borrego, J. Alves, C. Silva, Preliminary validation of a questionnaire to measure basic psychological needs in Physical Education, Motricidade, 6 (2010) 33–51.
  28. A. Papaioannou, D. Milosis, C. Gotzaridis, Interdisciplinary teaching of physics in physical education: Effects on students’ autonomous motivation and satisfaction, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 39 (2020) 156–164.
  29. A.G. Papaioannou, Teaching a holistic, harmonious and internal motivational concept of excellence to promote olympic ideals, health and well-being for all, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 36 (2017) 353–368.
  30. E.T. Leptokaridou, S.P. Vlachopoulos, A.G. Papaioannou, Experimental longitudinal test of the influence of autonomy-supportive teaching on motivation for participation in elementary school physical education, Educational Psychology, 36 (2016) 1135–1156.
  31. M.N. Meira, W.V.S. Leal, C.R. Ferreira, Motivação de professores e alunos nas aulas de educação física em uma escola pública da cidade de montes claros-mg, Revista Bionorte, 7 (2018).
  32. S. Zach, M. Bar-Eli, T. Morris, M. Moore, Measuring motivation for physical activity: An exploratory study of PALMS - the physical activity and leisure motivation scale, Athletic Insight: The Online Journal of Sport Psychology, 4(2012), 141–154.
  33. P. Kline, The handbook of psychological testing, 2nd ed, Taylor & Frances/Routledge, Florence, KY, US, (1993).
  34. J. Cohen, Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, Academic press, (1988).
  35. C.L. Bryan, M.A. Solmon, Student motivation in physical education and engagement in physical activity, Journal of Sport Behavior, 35(2012), 267–285.
  36. L. Aleksovska-Velickovska, S. Gontarev, K. Ruzdija, Students motivation for engaging in physical activity: Theory for self-determination, Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 14 (2019) 325-334.
  37. X. Gu, M. Chang, M.A. Solmon, Physical activity, physical fitness, and health-related quality of life in school-aged children, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 35 (2016) 117–126.
  38. A. Baena-Extremera, J.A. Sanchez-Fuentes, A. Granero-Gallegos, F.J. Perez-Quero, C. Bracho-Amador, Motivation and motivational climate as predictors of perceived importance of physical education in Spain, South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 35 (2013) 1–13.
  39. P. Xiang, B. Ağbuğa, J. Liu, R.E. McBride, Relatedness need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, and engagement in secondary school physical education, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 36 (2017) 340–352.
  40. G. González Valero, F. Zurita Ortega, A. Martínez Martínez, Panorama motivacional y de actividad física en estudiantes: una revisión sistemática, Education, Sport, Health and Physical Activity (ESHPA), 1 (2017) 41–58.
  41. G. González-Valero, J.L. Ubago-Jiménez, I.A. Ramírez-Granizo, P. Puertas-Molero, Association between motivational climate, adherence to mediterranean diet, and levels of physical activity in physical education students, Behavioral Sciences, 9 (2019) 37.
  42. E.L. Deci, R.M. Ryan, Self-Determination Theory, Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology: Collection: Volumes 1 & 2, (2011) 416.
  43. L. Cid, A. Pires, C. Borrego, P. Duarte-Mendes, D.S. Teixeira, J.M. Moutão, D. Monteiro, Motivational determinants of physical education grades and the intention to practice sport in the future, Plos One, 14 (2019) e0217218.
  44. M.H. McDonough, S. Ullrich-French, M.L. McDavid, Helping kids connect: Participant and staff perspectives on facilitating social relationships in a physical activity-based positive youth development program for youth from low-income families, Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 7 (2018) 13–29.
  45. K. Casebolt, L.-M. Chiang, B. Melton, J. Russell, College/university instructional physical activity programs and academic success in higher education, International Journal of Kinesiology in Higher Education, 1 (2017) 100–106.
  46. C.D. Ennis, Educating students for a lifetime of physical activity: Enhancing mindfulness, motivation, and meaning, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 88 (2017) 241–250.